Logical Reasoning -Inferences updated on Jan 2022

Logical Reasoning

Inferences-Inferences

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Inferences  Aptitude basics, practice questions, answers and explanations 
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Introduction: Inference is a conclusion drawn on the basis of knowledge of facts available. In questions on INFERENCES, a paragraph is followed by few statements. On the basis of the information given in the passage, we have to check the truthfulness or falsity of the given statement. Each statement can be put into one of the four categories.

The four categories are

definitely true
probably true
probably false
definitely false

Directions: In each question below is given a passage followed by some inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon the degree of truth or falsity of the inference. Mark answer

1) if you think that the answer is definitely true.
2) if you think that the answer is probably true.
3) if the data provided is inadequate to answer the question.
4) if the answer is definitely false.
5) if the answer is probably false.


Exercise question:

Passage
The most recent case of euthanasia in India was that of a Mumbai couple who approached the courts to seek medical termination of a pregnancy after the legally permissible abortion time limit had been crossed. According to the parents, the foetus had been detected to have serious disabilities which would affect the quality of life of the child if born. The court denied them permission, giving its own logic underlining the unborn baby’s right to live despite disabilities.  Fortunately or unfortunately, the issue was resolved in a different way when the mother suffered a miscarriage a little later and lost the baby.

Globally, in a landmark case, a British teenage girl won the right to die the way she wants. Terminally ill Hanah Jones, just 13 years old, has spent much of the past eight years in hospital wards undergoing treatment for leukaemia. Euthanasia is complex because the issue is attached to ending life, voluntarily. Surprisingly, today it has been legalised only in a handful of countries. But here too and elsewhere the many forms of euthanasia have been taken into consideration.

1. The courts in India have the authority to sanction euthanasia.
2. The courts consider the age of the foetus before granting permission for abortion.
3. It is fortunate that the Mumbai couple lost the baby.
4. The author is against legalising euthanasia.
5. The British courts allow anyone to die the way one want.

Answers:

1) The Mumbai couple approached the court because the courts have the authority to sanction euthanasia. Hence, the inference is definitely  true.

Options:

1) if you think that the answer is definitely true. (Answer)
2) if you think that the answer is probably true.
3) if the data provided is inadequate to answer the question.
4) if the answer is definitely false.
5) if the answer is probably false.


2) In the first passage, the couple approached the court as the legally permissible abortion time limit had been crossed. From this we can definitely conclude that there is a legally permissible time limit for abortion. So, the inference is definitely true.

Options:

1) if you think that the answer is definitely true.
2) if you think that the answer is probably true. (Answer)
3) if the data provided is inadequate to answer the question.
4) if the answer is definitely false.
5) if the answer is probably false.


3) At the end of the first paragraph “Fortunately or unfortunately the issue.....lost the baby”. The author himself is not sure whether the incident is fortunate or unfortunate. So, the inference is definitely false.

Options:

1) if you think that the answer is definitely true.
2) if you think that the answer is probably true.
3) if the data provided is inadequate to answer the question.
4) if the answer is definitely false.
5) if the answer is probably false. (Answer)


4) In the second paragraph it is given that “surprisingly today it has been.... countries”. From this we can conclude that the author is in favour of euthanasia. Hence, the inference is definitely false.

Options:
1) if you think that the answer is definitely true.
2) if you think that the answer is probably true.
3) if the data provided is inadequate to answer the question.
4) if the answer is definitely false.
5) if the answer is probably false. (Answer)


5) No where in the world one can die in the way one want, but if the person cannot be soured by any medical treatment, those persons can die that to with the permission of the courts. So, the inference is definitely false.

Options:

1) if you think that the answer is definitely true.
2) if you think that the answer is probably true.
3) if the data provided is inadequate to answer the question.
4) if the answer is definitely false.
5) if the answer is probably false. (Answer)

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