Indian Freedom Struggle - General Knowledge Questions and Answers

Indian Freedom Struggle -General Knowledge Questions and Answers

|   7375


The Revolt of 1857

This mutiny began with a revolt by the soldiers at Meerut who were unemployed. The cause of their unemployment was the new cartridge introduced in the new Enfield Rifles which contained grease made of cow and pig fat which had to be removed by their mouths inorder to use the weapon. This was not religiously agreeable and accepted to both the Hindu and the Muslim soldiers, hence, they refused to use the weapon and in return they were left unemployed.

Soon this revolt became widespread, mainly in Delhi and the nearby states. But this revolt proved to be a failure and the British army shot back by plundering, loots, murders etc. and left the people helpless. This revolt affected Delhi, Awadh, Rohilkhand, Bundelkhand,Allahabad, Agra, Meerut and western Bihar the most where some of the most ferocious battles were fought. But still the revolt of 1857 did not prove to be a success and failed within a year.

Indian National Congress (INC) came into existence

The foundation of the INC was laid in 1885. Its main aim was to put forward the view of the middle class educated citizens. In 1906,the Congress session at Calcutta gave a call to the attainment of 'Swaraj' and hence the 'Swadeshi Movement' started.

In 1905, the partition of West Bengal took place and the capital of the country was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.

Simultaneously, the British government too was preparing against the Indian efforts and as a result they passed several reforms in1909 known as the Morley-Minto reforms which instead of the development aimed at creating differences between the Hindus and the Muslims.

On one hand, the reformists and the revolutionaries were working and planning whereas on the other hand, the Jallianwala massacre took place in Punjab in 1919 where people had gathered to celebrate Baisakhi.

It was after the First World War (1914-1918) that Mahatma Gandhi came back to India and observed the condition of the country and started the non-violent agitation, "Satyagrah".

Non-Cooperation Movement

In 1920, Mahatma Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation Movement after realising that it was baseless to expect a fair treatment from the British government. This movement continued till 1922 and proved tobe a great success.

Simon Commission

Immediately after the non-cooperation movement was called off, in1927, another commission was introduced in the Indian government which had no Indian member included in the reforms and showed no intention of accepting the demand for 'Swaraj'. Under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai, great protests were held.

Civil Disobedience Movement

The Civil Disobedience Movement started in December 1929 and it aimed at complete ignorance and disobedience of the British government. It was during this movement that the revolutionaries:Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were arrested and hanged to death.

Quit India Movement

It was in August 1942 that Gandhiji started this movement which aimed at complete freedom from the British rule and posed as a 'do or die' situation. There were widespread actions of sabotage, violent protests etc. Finally Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose fled from the British detention and formed the Indian National Army. India got its freedom in August 1947 from the ruthless British rule after all the hard work, sacrifice and selflessness of the rulers, revolutionaries and citizens of the then country.

Important Years and Events

Year

Location

Event

1857

Meerut

Sepoy Mutiny

1858

Calcutta

East India Company abolished

1858

Gwalior

Battle of Gwalior when Rani Lakshmi Bai with Maratha rebelscaptured Gwalior from Scindia rulers

1858

Jhansi

Rani Laxmi Bai died

1859

Shivpuri

Tatya Tope captured and executed

1876


Queen Victoria declared as the "Empress of India"

1885

Bombay

Indian National Congress (INC) formed by AO Hume

1898


Lord Curzon became Viceroy

1905

Surat

Swadeshi Movement started

1905

Bengal

Partition of Bengal

1906

Dhaka

All India Muslim League founded

1908

Mandalay

Tilak was sentenced to six years on charges of sedition

1909


Minto-Morley Reforms or Indian Councils Act

1911

Delhi

Delhi durbar held. Partition of Bengal was cancelled

1912

Delhi

Delhi established as the new capital of India

1912

Delhi

Delhi Conspiracy Case to assassinate Lord Hardinge (Viceroy ofIndia)

1914


The Ghadar Party was formed at San Francisco

1915

Mumbai

Gopal Krishna Gokhale died

1916

Pune

Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League first in Poona (Pune)

1916

Madras

Annie Besant led Home Rule League

1917

Champaran

Mahatma Gandhi launched the Champaran campaign in Bihar

1918

Champaran

Champaran Agraria Law passed

1918


Beginning of trade union movement in India

1919

Amritsar

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

1919


Rowlatt Act passed by Imperial Legislative Council in London

1919


Khilafat Movement started

1920


Non-Cooperation Movement started

1920


All India Trade Union Congress started

1920

Calcutta

Gandhiji proposed a resolution that called for British to grantdominion status to India

1921

Malabar

Moplah rebellion

1922

Chauri Chaura

Chauri Chaura incident

1922

Allahabad

Swaraj Party formed

1925


Communist Party of India was formed

1925

Kakori

Kakori Conspiracy

1925

Bardoli

Bardoli Satyagraha

1928

Bombay

Simon Commission arrives in Bombay and an all-India hartal wasobserved

1928

Lahore

Lala Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore and later dieddueto injuries

1928


Nehru Report proposed new Dominion Constitution of India.

1929

Lahore

Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress held

1929

Lahore

Freedom fighter Jatindra Nath Das fasted till death demandingfor better facilities for prisoners

1929


All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the 'Fourteen Points'

1929

Delhi

Central Legislative Assembly bomb throwing incident

1929


Lord Irwin announced that the Government would meet for a RoundTable Conference with Indian representatives

1929

Lahore

Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the flag of India

1930


Purna Swaraj declaration was publicised by the IndianNationalCongress

1930

Sabarmati Ashram

Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement with Dandi March orthe Salt March

1930

Chittagong

Chittagong Armoury Raid

1930

London

First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider thereport of the Simon Commission

1931

Lahore

Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru hanged till death

1931


Gandhi Irwin Pact signed by Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin

1931


Second Round Table Conference

1932


British Prime Minister, Ramsay Macdonald announced the"CommunalAward" to grant separate electorates to Indian minoritycommunities

1932


Gandhiji began his "fast unto death" to improvestatus of untouchable castes that lasted for six days

1932

London

The Third Round Table Conference

1935


The Government of India Act 1935 passed

1937


Indian Provincial Elections held under the Government of IndiaAct 1935

1938

Haripura

Haripura session of the Indian National Congress held

1938


Subhash Chandra Bose was elected as the President of the IndianNational Congress

1939


Congress ministries in the provinces resigned to protestagainst the war policy of the British government. Subhash ChandraBose resigned from the post of the Indian National Congress'President

1939


The Muslim League observes 'Deliverance Day' to celebratetheresignation of the Congress ministries

1940


Lahore Session held by the Muslim League for the creation of'Independent States' for Muslims

1940


'August Offer 1940' made by Lord Linlithgow that offeredIndians' the right to create their own Constitution

1940

Wardha

Congress Working Committee rejects the 'August Offer' andlaunched 'Individual Satyagraha'

1941


Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India

1942


Quit India Movement or August Movement started

1942


Churchill announces the Cripps Mission

1942

Bombay

Indian National Congress adopted 'Quit India' Resolution

1942


'Azad Hind Fauj' established

1943

Karachi

Karachi session of the Muslim League adopted the slogan 'Divideand Rule'

1944

Moirang

Colonel Shaukat Malik of the Azad Hind Fauj defeated Britishinthe region with Japanese support

1944

Simla

Simla Conference held between Viceroy Archibald Wavellin andIndian political leaders

1946

Delhi

Cabinet Mission Plan passed

1946

Delhi

Constituent Assembly formed

1946

Delhi

Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi

1946

Lahore

Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress President

1946


Interim Government of India formed

1946

Delhi

First session of the Constituent Assembly of India held

1947


British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee declared that theBritish government would grant full self government to BritishIndia

1947


Lord Mountbatten appointed as the Viceroy of India and thenbecame the first Governor General of Independent India

1947


Mountbatten Plan was made for the partition of India into fullysovereign dominions - India and Pakistan with effect from15thAugust 1947 under the Indian Independence Act 1947

feedback