The Revolt of 1857
This mutiny began with a revolt by the soldiers at Meerut who were unemployed. The cause of their unemployment was the new cartridge introduced in the new Enfield Rifles which contained grease made of cow and pig fat which had to be removed by their mouths inorder to use the weapon. This was not religiously agreeable and accepted to both the Hindu and the Muslim soldiers, hence, they refused to use the weapon and in return they were left unemployed.
Soon this revolt became widespread, mainly in Delhi and the nearby states. But this revolt proved to be a failure and the British army shot back by plundering, loots, murders etc. and left the people helpless. This revolt affected Delhi, Awadh, Rohilkhand, Bundelkhand,Allahabad, Agra, Meerut and western Bihar the most where some of the most ferocious battles were fought. But still the revolt of 1857 did not prove to be a success and failed within a year.
Indian National Congress (INC) came into existence
The foundation of the INC was laid in 1885. Its main aim was to put forward the view of the middle class educated citizens. In 1906,the Congress session at Calcutta gave a call to the attainment of 'Swaraj' and hence the 'Swadeshi Movement' started.
In 1905, the partition of West Bengal took place and the capital of the country was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
Simultaneously, the British government too was preparing against the Indian efforts and as a result they passed several reforms in1909 known as the Morley-Minto reforms which instead of the development aimed at creating differences between the Hindus and the Muslims.
On one hand, the reformists and the revolutionaries were working and planning whereas on the other hand, the Jallianwala massacre took place in Punjab in 1919 where people had gathered to celebrate Baisakhi.
It was after the First World War (1914-1918) that Mahatma Gandhi came back to India and observed the condition of the country and started the non-violent agitation, "Satyagrah".
In 1920, Mahatma Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation Movement after realising that it was baseless to expect a fair treatment from the British government. This movement continued till 1922 and proved tobe a great success.
Immediately after the non-cooperation movement was called off, in1927, another commission was introduced in the Indian government which had no Indian member included in the reforms and showed no intention of accepting the demand for 'Swaraj'. Under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai, great protests were held.
Civil Disobedience Movement
The Civil Disobedience Movement started in December 1929 and it aimed at complete ignorance and disobedience of the British government. It was during this movement that the revolutionaries:Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were arrested and hanged to death.
Quit India Movement
It was in August 1942 that Gandhiji started this movement which aimed at complete freedom from the British rule and posed as a 'do or die' situation. There were widespread actions of sabotage, violent protests etc. Finally Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose fled from the British detention and formed the Indian National Army. India got its freedom in August 1947 from the ruthless British rule after all the hard work, sacrifice and selflessness of the rulers, revolutionaries and citizens of the then country.
Important Years and Events
East India Company abolished
Battle of Gwalior when Rani Lakshmi Bai with Maratha rebelscaptured Gwalior from Scindia rulers
Rani Laxmi Bai died
Tatya Tope captured and executed
Queen Victoria declared as the "Empress of India"
Indian National Congress (INC) formed by AO Hume
Lord Curzon became Viceroy
Swadeshi Movement started
Partition of Bengal
All India Muslim League founded
Tilak was sentenced to six years on charges of sedition
Minto-Morley Reforms or Indian Councils Act
Delhi durbar held. Partition of Bengal was cancelled
Delhi established as the new capital of India
Delhi Conspiracy Case to assassinate Lord Hardinge (Viceroy ofIndia)
The Ghadar Party was formed at San Francisco
Gopal Krishna Gokhale died
Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League first in Poona (Pune)
Annie Besant led Home Rule League
Mahatma Gandhi launched the Champaran campaign in Bihar
Champaran Agraria Law passed
Beginning of trade union movement in India
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Rowlatt Act passed by Imperial Legislative Council in London
Khilafat Movement started
Non-Cooperation Movement started
All India Trade Union Congress started
Gandhiji proposed a resolution that called for British to grantdominion status to India
Chauri Chaura incident
Swaraj Party formed
Communist Party of India was formed
Simon Commission arrives in Bombay and an all-India hartal wasobserved
Lala Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore and later dieddueto injuries
Nehru Report proposed new Dominion Constitution of India.
Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress held
Freedom fighter Jatindra Nath Das fasted till death demandingfor better facilities for prisoners
All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the 'Fourteen Points'
Central Legislative Assembly bomb throwing incident
Lord Irwin announced that the Government would meet for a RoundTable Conference with Indian representatives
Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the flag of India
Purna Swaraj declaration was publicised by the IndianNationalCongress
Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement with Dandi March orthe Salt March
Chittagong Armoury Raid
First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider thereport of the Simon Commission
Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru hanged till death
Gandhi Irwin Pact signed by Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin
Second Round Table Conference
British Prime Minister, Ramsay Macdonald announced the"CommunalAward" to grant separate electorates to Indian minoritycommunities
Gandhiji began his "fast unto death" to improvestatus of untouchable castes that lasted for six days
The Third Round Table Conference
The Government of India Act 1935 passed
Indian Provincial Elections held under the Government of IndiaAct 1935
Haripura session of the Indian National Congress held
Subhash Chandra Bose was elected as the President of the IndianNational Congress
Congress ministries in the provinces resigned to protestagainst the war policy of the British government. Subhash ChandraBose resigned from the post of the Indian National Congress'President
The Muslim League observes 'Deliverance Day' to celebratetheresignation of the Congress ministries
Lahore Session held by the Muslim League for the creation of'Independent States' for Muslims
'August Offer 1940' made by Lord Linlithgow that offeredIndians' the right to create their own Constitution
Congress Working Committee rejects the 'August Offer' andlaunched 'Individual Satyagraha'
Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India
Quit India Movement or August Movement started
Churchill announces the Cripps Mission
Indian National Congress adopted 'Quit India' Resolution
'Azad Hind Fauj' established
Karachi session of the Muslim League adopted the slogan 'Divideand Rule'
Colonel Shaukat Malik of the Azad Hind Fauj defeated Britishinthe region with Japanese support
Simla Conference held between Viceroy Archibald Wavellin andIndian political leaders
Cabinet Mission Plan passed
Constituent Assembly formed
Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi
Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress President
Interim Government of India formed
First session of the Constituent Assembly of India held
British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee declared that theBritish government would grant full self government to BritishIndia
Lord Mountbatten appointed as the Viceroy of India and thenbecame the first Governor General of Independent India
Mountbatten Plan was made for the partition of India into fullysovereign dominions - India and Pakistan with effect from15thAugust 1947 under the Indian Independence Act 1947