XAT Previous Years Solved Questions of Verbal Ability-English Language for learn and practice
Directions for questions 1 –20: Each of the two passages given below is followed by five questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
A multi -sectoral survey done by the International Clinical Epidemiologists Network (INCLEN) has found that country to popular belief, domestic, violence in India cut across social and educational status. Economic and gender relations are undergoing changes, with an increasing number of women entering the formal and informal labour markets. This casts the woman in the role of breadwinner as opposed to home-market, leading to increasing use of violence as a mechanism to subjugate her.
The study found that women -educated and illiterate, from rural and urban areas, en gaged in paid and unpaid labour-suffer varying degrees of physical and psychological violence by their husbands. Two out of every five married women reported being hit, kicked, beaten or slapped by their husbands. Fifty percent of the women experiencing physical violence also reported physical abuse during pregnancy. A respondent from a slum colony in Bhopal said that she was beaten not only by her husband but also by all members of his family.
In the lower economic strata, abused women typically lead a complicated life. They work as domestic help, which often means unsympathetic employers. Add to this small children who need attention and alcoholic husbands, and it is a vicious cycle.
Why do women face violence at the hands of those who are supposed to provide them security? The range of ‘causes ’ varies from not cooking on time to mismanagement of the household to neglect of children. In short, non -adherence to gender roles and responsibilities leads to violence, or the threat of it, is used very often to ensure ‘discipline’, which either maintains gender roles, or prevents changes in gender relations. For example, alcohol and dowry have long been associated with violence, but then, why is it that men beat only their wives and children after drinking? Why is it that women have to bring a host of material possessions to establish and maintain their status within the matrimonial homes? Both these phenomena reflect women ’s subordination within marriage, a strongly endorsed gender role in society.
One arena in which gender roles are undergoing rapid change is the economic sphere, with increasing numbers of women entering the formal and informal labour market. The study found that Nagpur, over90 percent of the women who had reported experiencing violence were involved in paid work. The Nagpur data revealed another significant point. More abuse if their husbands were unemployed. This suggests that working women suffer more abuse if their husbands are also unemployed. Gender gap in employment acts as a further trigger for domestic violence.
This should, however, not be interpreted to mean that providing employment opportunities to unemployed men would automatically ensure reduction in violence in against women. On the contrary, violence is frequently used as a mechanism to deal with any attempt at reversal in gender role, which pits ‘ man-the –bread-earner’ against ‘woman–the–home -market’.
In a similar vein, the recent National Family Health found that women working for money are more likely to have been beaten in th e last 12 months. A respondent from rural Lucknow, sharing her story of marital abuse, said, “He insults me in front of my relatives and neighbours. He used to beat me also but for the past year that has stopped, mainly because he is now in a better job and earning better.”
It is also important to view these findings against the recent trend of employed women seeking help. A recent study by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, found that the number of employed women seeking help at the special cell for women and that women and children went up with increasing year of experiencing violence. Case-workers at the special cell hypothesise that women in paid employment probably have a wider network of support, which enable them to explore alternative options over a longer period of time. That women in regular employment are turning up for counseling and help suggest that they are less willing to tolerate domestic
Economic forces are opening at two dichotomous level that expose women to the risk of violence. Liberalisation has resulted in increased entry of women into the labour market - albeit in the informal sector - leading to a re -negotiation of gender roles. However, the same economic forces are also promoting a consumerist lifestyle that reinforces regressive gender roles, placing women at greater risk as regards domestic violence.
Middle -class women today are being increasingly targeted as the ultimate consumers. The message is to aspire to a lifestyle of acquisition; and women are positioned as instruments through which such acquisition possible. This acquisition is projected by an image of the savvy working wife or a wife who is able to bring all this into the matrimonial home through dowry.
In the changing economic scenario, dowry has entered into societies where it was hitherto unheard of. A whole body of literature documents this emerging phenomenon in various parts of India, like Kerala and Tehri Garhwal. For example, the INCLEN survey found some of the highest rates of dowry dissatisfaction and the reporting of new dowry demands in Thiruvanthapuram in Kerala.
It is essential to take cognizance of the wide prevalence of domestic violence, especially as a response to changing gender roles - roles that are being both challenged and reinfo rced by rapid social and economic transitions. Yet planners and policy -markers position many of these transitions as inevitable consequences of development.
Is domestic violence, them, an inevitable fallout of development? The answer is a categorical no. A development paradigm in which domestic violence is a ‘by-product’, is antithetical to the very goals it seeks to achieve. If, as Novel laureate Amartya Sen says, development is the realization of human rights, then the existence of domestic violence is a fundamental barrier to development.
1.Chances of domestic violence are higher in case of wives and husbands.
(1) unemployed, poor
(2) employed, poor
(3) unemployed, employed
(4) employed, unemployed-Answer
2. The male psychology behind domestic violence could be
(1) a difficulty in accepting the wife in a non traditional role -Answer
(2) outward manifestation of poverty-induced frustrations
(3) greed and dowry
(4) seeking an outlet for the natural animalistic instinct for violence
3. The institution of dowry, according to the author, is a proof of
(2) societal greed
(3) lower status of women in marriage-Answer
(4) lack of social change in India
4. Why, according to the author, improvement in employment situation for the males will still not solve the problem?
(1) gap in earning will still be a factor.
(2) Masculine need to subjugate working women will still remain. -Answer
(3) Drinking and dowry problems won ’t yet be solved.
(4) All the above
5. The institution of dowry, according to the author, is governed by the dictates of
II. economics of greed
(1) I only
(2) I only
(3) I and II -Answer
(4) Neither I nor II
6. The consumerist lifestyle projects women today as a
(1) symbol of independence
(2) subject for violence
(3) tool for dowry
(4) means for acquisition-Answer
7. The author’s conclusions about women turning to counseling makes which of the following assumptions?
(1) Economic security emboldens women.-Answer
(2) Desperation leads women to turn to counseling.
(3) Women won ’t tolerate violence beyond a point.
(4) Drinking is abhorred by women in general.
8. The author can most strongly criticized on which of the following grounds?
(1) a female chauvinistic view
(2) ultra -feminism
(3) proposing no concrete solutions-Answer
(4) stereo tying the male species
9. “The author suggests that today’s advertisements of products are also promoting dowry.” In the light of the given passage, this statement
(1) is probably true
(2) is definitely true-Answer
(3) Can be neither established nor rejected
(4) is definitely false
10. According to the author, domestic violence cuts across w omen
(1) is predominant in lower classes
(2) is predominant in kerala and tehri - Garhwal
(3) cuts across class barriers-Answer
(4) and is a fall out of development
No effort is made to understand the reasons for these recurring disasters. Nobody has or the time or the inclination to understand the reasons. Unless and until we make an effort to understand these disasters will continue
year after year with ever -increasing intensity.
The paramount need of day is “information, education, and planning”. Information would mean gathering data from all over the world about environmental degradation, loss of forest cover or mangroves, and pollution of all
Education would mean informing the rules the mankind the reasons for these distressed.
People must be made aware of the phenomenon of global warming. The vaporous by products of human activities create gas, like carbon dioxide-CO2 – which traps vast amount of heat resulting in the increase of earth ’s temperature, which boosts sea -level, shifts seasons. Unseasonal floods, rains, droughts etc. are the direct pattern of seasons but not so under E1 Nino. Increase of two degrees in global warming can cause a havoc.
Greenhouse effect is another phenomenon, which haunts us, incoming sunlight has an energy equivalent to about 3,100 watts bulbs per sq yard. Lower air layers, which contain a number of gases, water vapour, CO2 and many others, trap the heat when these gases warm up, some of the heat is radiated back to earth ‘s surface. This is broadly known as green effect.
CO2 emission accounts for 60 percent of warming and has a life span of about 100 years in the atmosphere. Water vapour in contrast has a life span of eight days only.
Ozone-level depletion is another cause of series concern as it causes killer cancer for which as yet there is no cure.
Once we understand the causes, it is easy to take to remedial measures. This brings us to planning.
Effluent managem ent planning is the dire need of the day. There should be steering committee of governmental ministers, scientists, industries, NGOs, to devise means to develop and install machineries to prevent major cause of polluting effluents mentioned earlier. Within a time -bound framework, these devices must be installed, failing which the erring industries must be closed down. No new industries should be permitted without efficient effluent management and treatment. Chemical pesticides should be phased out gradually. Indian farmer for centuries depended upon organic fertilizers. Let us opt for them again.
Recently, studies showed that mother ‘s milk has DDT contents, obviously from consuming food having agrochemicals or pesticides. The indiscriminate use of pesticides kills both predatory and beneficial insects also. Let us bring back use of Neem for pesticides, which kills only predatory insects, or Tulsi for cleaning the atmosphere from suffocating pollution. Planting these trees on war footing in the urgent need of the day. A country needs more than 30 percent forest cover. Trees retain water in soil and act as buffers against the waves. They are necessary for maintaining the regular cycle of seasons. India has less than 20 percent of forest cover.
All this is pos sible if we opt for information technology. Vast sources of information are available. Let us use them to bring the knowledge to the doorstep of a common man, the executive, the politicians and the judiciary.
Environment is a finely-tuned and extremely well –balanced ecological mechanism. Flora and fauna, birds, animals and, of course, humans play a vital role. Touch one adversely and all suffer. We are courting irreversible disaster.
We have turned our back on Nature. Let us go back to Nature - at least f or our survival.
11. According to the author, the various constituents of the environment are
(3) mutually in exclusive
12. According to the author, the first step toward any remedy is
(1) understanding the cause -Answer
(2) analysis of the existent resources
(4) sound implementation of ideas
13. Which of the following is not inferable from the passage?
I. Cancer is Incurable.
II. The present nature of men ’s interaction is unsustainable. III. Mother’s milk is not advisable.
(1) I only
(2) I and II -Answer
(3) II and III
(4) All I, II and III
14. Which is the main culprit that causes greenhouse effect?
(1) incoming sunlight
(2) trapping gases
(3) gaseous radiation -Answer
(4) lower air-layers
15.India’s forest cover is roughly
(1) half of what is needed-Answer
(3) adequate for mangroves
(4) None of these
16. Which of the following would not get the author’s support, in your view? (1) genetically modified rice for eating
(2) food grains produced by robots
(3) drinks containing artificial flavours and preservations
(4) All of the above-Answer
17. The superiority of neem as a preside is based upon the fact that neem products
(1) are easy to use
(2) are easily produced
(3) kill only pesticides -Answer
(4) are biodegradable
18. The author’s ecological perspective on industries postulates that
(1) NGOs should monitor the environmental angle of industrial activity.
(2) Governmental influence on industrial awareness about environmental matters needs to be stepped up
(3) Industries should bear the burden of cleaning their effluents.-Answer
(4) Industries should switch over to natural products while manufacturing products.
19. Which of the following has not been covered by the author?
I. global warming
II. noise pollution
III. water pollution
(1) I and II
(2) Only II
(3) Only III
(4) II and III-Answer
20. The author’s passage can be said to be an attempt at
(2) expression of despair-Answer
(3) intellectual pursuit
Directions: Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word or group of words given in capitals in each question.
(3) Recommends -Answer
(1) Claims -Answer
(2) Imitation -Answer
(1) Dishonour -Answer
(2) Begin -Answer
(3) Adorn -Answer
(2) Loquaciousness -Answer
(1) Excitement -Answer
Directions: Pick out the most effective word from the given words to fill in the blank to make the sentence meaningfully complete.
41. Indications are that the Government is …... to the prospect of granting bonus to the striking employees.
(3) Recon ciled -Answer
42. Shivalal ……. classical music. He always prefers Bhimsen Joshi to Asha Bhosale and Pundit Jasraj to Kumar Sanu.
(1) Adores -Answer
43. As a general rule, politicians do not ...... centrestage.
44. The ...... study on import of natural gas from Iran through a pipeline would be completed shortly.
45. His party is solely to be blamed for the political ...... in the country.
46. We still have not given our …… to conduct the survey of natural resources in our state.
(2) Consent -Answer
47. We cannot go on strike every year. Now that we have gone on strike we must ...... this issue.
(1) Clinch -Answer
48. Man is a/an ....... creature ; however, he is more in need of mental companionship than of physical companionship.
49. He is the best man for this job. He has mental ...... to carry it out.
(3) Adroitness -Answer
50. I was totally ...... by his line o f thinking and could not put forth any argument.
(2) Non -plussed-Answer
Directions: In the following questions choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in capitals.
(3) Apparent -Answer
(3) Nadir -Answer