Logical Reasoning -Statement and Assumptions updated on Aug 2019

Statement and Assumptions-Statement and Assumptions

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Statement and Assumptions Aptitude basics, practice questions, answers and explanations 
Prepare for companies tests and interviews
 

Statement: At the simplest level, a statement is a formal account of certain facts, views, problems or situations expressed in words.

Assumption: An idea which is thought to be true, or certain to happen, but is not explicitly proved or supported by facts.

Implicit: Something that is suggested or is to be understood, though it is not plainly expresses.

Keywords: Words like ‘all’, ‘only’, ‘every’, etc. are definitive in nature, whereas words like ‘some’, 'a few', 'many', etc, are not.
Therefore, one should differentiate between statements like “use entire time for studies” and “use some time for studies”.

Example:

1. Statement: Anger is energy, in a more proactive way and how to channellise it is in itself a skill.
Assumptions: I. Anger need to be channelized.
II. Only skilful people can channellise anger to energy.

(1) If only assumption I is implicit.

(2) If only assumption II is implicit.

(3) if either I or II is implicit.

(4) if neither I or II is implicit.

(5) if both I and II are implicit.

Answer with explanation: 
In this the author is not clearly stated whether there is a need to channellise anger into energy or not. So, I is irrelevant. In the statement II it is given that channelizing anger to energy is a skill. Here the assumption of the author is that only those people who has the skill can channelize anger to energy. Only II is implicit.

Exercise Questions

Q1)Statement: Medicine ‘x’ is a drug which is causing ripples in the medical field.

Assumptions: I. No other drug is causing ripples in the medical field.
II.Medicine ‘x’ is a great drug.

(1) If only assumption I is implicit.

(2) If only assumption II is implicit.

(3) if either I or II is implicit.

(4) if neither I or II is implicit.

(5) if both I and II are implicit.

Answer with explanation: 

The passage does not state that only the medicine ‘x’ caused ripples in the medical field. Hence (1) cannot be a valid assumption. We cannot say that medicine ‘x’ is a great drug just because it caused ripples in the medical field. Hence, (ii) also is not valid.

Q2)Statement: The ticket for Balcony class is atrociously priced at Rs. 200.

Assumptions:I. The tickets for other classes are decently priced.

II. Rs 200 is a very big amount to pay for a balcony ticket.

(1) If only assumption I is implicit.

(2) If only assumption II is implicit.

(3) if either I or II is implicit.

(4) if neither I or II is implicit.

(5) if both I and II are implicit.

Answer with explanation: (I) is talking about other classes which cannot be inferred from the given statement. This is not an assumption. (II) is an assumption as this is clearly expressed in the given statement with the use of the words atrociously priced.

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