AFCAT Air Force Common Admission Test English model question paper
Directions (Qs. 1-20): Read the following passages carefully to answer the questions that fallow each passage.
Agriculture dominates change in India through its causal links with factor and product markets. It employs 60 per cent of the labour force and contributes 26 per cent of the gross domestic product. In the poorer States, its contribution to the domestic product is close to 40 per cent. Low productivity in agriculture has led to the concentration of the poor in this sector. Due to the sheer size of the agricultural economy and the importance of its major products (cereals) in the diets of the poor, gains in agricultural productivity have significant potential impact on poverty. Theoretically, it is possible to reduce poverty as well as expand the domestic market for industry by raising labour productivity in agriculture and spreading its gains among the low income groups.
Modeling of the linkages between agricultural and industrial growth has shown that a I0 per cent increase in agricultural output would increase industrial output by 5 per cent and urban workers.would benefit by both increased industrial employment and price deflation. However, there is a symmetry of adjustments in the demand and supply of agricultural goods. An increase in non- *agricultural production would lead to an immediate increase in demand for intermediate and final agricultural goods, whereas supply-side adjustments involving re-allocation of resources and net additional investment for capacity expansion take a much longer period. There is a widely held view that in a large country like India, the demand stimulus for industrialization would come mainly from agriculture with less social and economic costs. Interdependencies in food and labour market are
important for the development process. An upward shift in the food supply curve would simultaneously result in an upward shift in the labour demand curve. The magnitude of the interdependence depends on the technique of production causing the shifts in the food supply curve.
Similarly, an upward shift in the labour I supply curve shifts up the food demand curve. The extent of interdependence between the forces of labour supply and food demand depends on the employment output elasticity and the income elasticity of demand for food. The recent estimate of the employment output elasticity in agriculture is around 0.5, income elasticity of food is in the range of 0.55-0.60 and that for cereals is 0.25-0.30. The other important inter-dependency, which plays a crucial role in inducing indirect employment, is that between food and other sectors through demand linkages. Since food accounts for a major share in the budget of the poor and any reduction in the food price levels a significant proportion of income for other items, a lower food price stimulates employment in industrial and service sectors. On the other hand an increase in the food price would
increase the wage costs of industrial products and hence the prices of industrial products. In the absence of adjustments through exports, it would result in demand deficiency. Clearly, the mostfavorable situation in India is one in which labour demand outpaces its supply and food supply outpaces its demand. Wage rate cannot fall below a certain minimum determined by the costs of subsistence living and the labour supply curve turns elastic at the subsistence wage rate.
Demographic pressure cannot push the wage rate below the subsistence level. People would be willing to starve rather than work unless the energy expended in physical work in compensated by the energy provided by food. Food grain price usually determines the subsistence wage rate in agricultural as well as in the urban informal sector since food grains account for about four-fifth of the calorie intake of the poor.
1. Which of the following is meant by “the labour supply curve turns elastic at the subsistence wage rate” as used in the passage?
A. People refuse to work at the minimum wage rate
B. People are eager to work at the minimum wage rate
C. People still work at the minimum wage rate
D. People have no option but to work at the minimum wage rate.
2. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?
A. Increase in labour productivity in agriculture can reduce poverty.
B. Agricultural sector can increase the is demand for labour forces.
C. Agricultural sector can provide the impetus for greater industrialization at lower cost.
D. All are true.
3. Which of the following in addition to employment output elasticity, according to the passage,creates indirect employment?
A. Inter-linkage of demand of food and other sectors.
B. Income elasticity of demand for food.
C. Inter-dependence of forces of labour supply and food demand.
D. All the above
4. Why, according to the passage, does lower food price stimulate employment in the Industrial and service sectors?
A. Poorer people cannot afford to buy non-food products
B. The production cost of non-agricultural products and services reduces.
C. Lower price of food items provides the poor with extra funds to buy other products and services.
D. Industrial sector can afford to employ more people at lower cost.
The lithosphere, or outer shell, of the earth is made up of about a dozen rigid plates that move with respect to one another. New lithosphere is created at mid-ocean ridges by the upwelling and cooling of magma from the earth’s interior. Since new lithosphere is continuously being created and the earth is not expanding to any appreciable extent, me question arises: what happens to the “odd” lithosphere? The answer came in the late 1960s as the last major link in the theory of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics that has revolutionized our understanding of tectonic processes, or structural deformation, in the earth and has provided a unifying theme for many diverse observations of the earth sciences. The old lithosphere is subducted, or pushed down, into the earth’s mantle (the thick shell of red-hot rock beneath the earth’s thin, cooler crust and above its metallic, partly melted
core). As the formerly rigid plate descends it slowly heats up, and over a period of millions of years it is absorbed into the general circulation of the earth’s mantle. The subduction of the lithosphere is perhaps the most significant phenomenon in global tectonics.
Subduction not only explains what happens to old lithosphere but also accounts for many of the geologic processes that shape the earth surface. Most of the world’s volcanoes and earthquakes are associated with descending lithosphere plates. The prominent island arcs chains of islands such as the Aleutians, the Kuriles, the Marianas, and the islands of Japan are surface expressions of thesubduction process. The deepest trenches of the world’s oceans, including the Java and Tonga trenches and all others associated with island arcs, mark the seaward boundary of subduction zones; Major mountain belts, such as the Andes and the Himalayas, have resulted from the convergence and subduction of lithosphere plates To understand the subduction process it is necessary to look at the thermal regime of the earth. The temperatures within the earth at first increase rapidly with depth, reaching about 1,200 degrees Celsius at a depth of 100 kilometers. Then they increase more gradually, approaching 2,000 degrees C at about 500 kilometers. The minerals in peridotite, the major constituent of the upper mantle, start to melt at about-1200 C, or typically at a depth of l00 kilometers. Under the ocean-s the upper mantle is fairly soft and may contain some molten material at depths as shallow as 80 kilometers. The soft
region of the mantle, over which the rigid lithosphere plate normally moves, is the as thenosphere. It appears that in certain areas convection currents in the as thenosphere may drive the plates, and that in other regions the plate motions may drive the convection currents Several factors contribute to the heating of the lithosphere as it descends into the mantle. First,heat simply flows into the cooler lithosphere from the surrounding warmer mantle. Since the conductivity of the rock increases with temperature, the conductive heating becomes more efficient with increasing depth. Second, as the lithosphere slab descends it is subjected to increase pressure, which introduces heat of compression. Third, the slab is heated by the radioactive decay of uranium thorium and potassium, which are present in the earths crust and add heat at a constant rate to the descending material. Fourth, heat is provided by the energy released when the minerals in the lithosphere change to denser phases, or more compact crystal structures, as they are subjected to higher pressures during descent. Finally, heat is generated by friction, shear stresses and the dissipation of viscous motions at the boundaries between the moving lithosphere plate and the surrounding mantle. Among all these sources the first and fourth contribute the most toward the heating of the descending lithosphere.
5. According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are true of the earths mantle?
I. It is in a state of flux
II. Its temperature far exceeds that of the lithosphere.
III. It eventually incorporates the subducted lithosphere
A. I only
B. I and III only
C. II only
D. I, II and III
6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author regards current knowledge about therelationship between lithosphere plate motions and the convection currents in the as thenosphere as:
7. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences?
A. Geothermal researchers investigating the as thenosphere as a potential energy source •
B. College undergraduates enrolled in an introductory course on geology
C. Historians of science studying the origins of plate tectonic theory D. Graduate students engaged in analyzing the rate of sea—floor spreading
8. Which of the following is not true of the heating of the lithosphere as it is described inthe passage?
A. The temperature gradient between the lithosphere and the surrounding mantle enables heat to be transferred from the latter to the former.
B. The more me temperature of the lithosphere slab increases, the more conductive the rock itself becomes.
C. Minerals in the lithosphere slab release heat in the course of phase changes that occur during their descent into the mantle.
D. The further the lithosphere slab descends into the mantle, the faster the radioactive decay of elements within it adds to its heat
It is indisputable that in order to fulfill its many functions, water should be clean and biologically valuable. The costs connected with the provision of biologically valuable water for food production,with the maintenance of sufficiently clean water, therefore, are primarily production costs. Purely “environmental” costs seem to be in this respect only costs connected with the safeguarding of cultural, recreational and sports functions which the
water courses and reservoirs fulfill both in nature and in human settlements.
The pollution problems of the atmosphere resemble those of the water only partly. So far, the supply of air has not been deficient as was the case with water, and the dimensions of the air-shed are so vast mat a number of people still hold the opinion that air need not be economized. However, scientific forecasts have shown that the time may be already approaching when clear and biologicallyvaluable air will become problem No. 1.
Air being ubiquitous, people are particularly sensitive about any reduction in the quality of the atmosphere, the increased contents of dust and gaseous exhalations, and particularly about the presence of odours. The demand for purity of atmosphere, therefore, emanates much more from the population itself than from the specific sectors of the national economy affected by a polluted or evenbiologically aggressive atmosphere.
The households’ share in atmospheric pollution is far bigger than that of industry which, in turn further complicates the economic problems of atmospheric purity. Some countries have alreadycollected positive experience with the reconstruction of whole urban sectors on the basis of new e heating appliances based on the combustion of solid fossil fuels; estimates of the economic consequences of such measures have also been putforward.
In contrast to water, where the maintenance of purity would seem primarily to be related to the costs of production and transport, a far higher proportion of the costs of maintaining the purity of the atmosphere derive from environmental consideration. Industrial sources of gaseous and dust emissions are well known and classified; their location can be accurately identified, which makes them controllable. With the exception, perhaps, of the elimination of sulphur dioxide, technical means and technological processes exist which can be used for the elimination of all excessive impurities of the air from the various emissions.Atmospheric pollution caused by the private property of individuals (their dwellings, automobiles, etc). is difficult to control. Some sources such as motor vehicles are very mobile, and they are thus capableof polluting vast territories. In this particular case, the cost of anti-pollution measures will have to be borne, to a considerable extent, by individuals, whether in the form of direct costs or indirectly in the form of taxes, dues, surcharges etc.The problem of noise is a typical example of an environmental problem which cannot be solved only passively, i.e., merely by protective measures, but will require the adoption of active measures, i.e., direct interventions at the source. The costs of a complete protection against noise are so prohibitive as to make it unthinkable even in the economically most developed countries. At the same time it would not seen feasible, either economically or politically, to force the population to carry the costs of individual protection against noise, for example, by reinforcing the sound insulation of their homes.A solution of this problem probably cannot be found in the near future.
9. Scientific forecasts have shown that clear and biologically valuable air:
A. is likely to remain abundant for some time
B. may soon be dangerously lacking
C. creates fewer economic difficulties than does water pollution
D. may be beyond the capacity of our technology to protect
10. The costs involved in the maintenance of pure water are determined primarily by:
I. Production costs
II. Transport costs
III. Research costs
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. III only
D. II and III only
11. According to the passage, the problem of noise can be solved through:
I. Active measures
II. Passive measures
III, Tax levies
A. I only
B. I and II only
C. III only
D. II and III only
12. According to the passage, the costs of some anti-pollution measures will have to be borne byindividuals because:
A. individuals contribute to the creation of population
B. industry is not willing to bear its share
C. governments do not have adequate resources
D. individuals are more easily taxed than producers
Much as an electrical lamp transforms electrical energy into heat and light, the visual ‘“apparatus” of a human being acts as a transformer of light into sight. Light projected from a source or reflected by an object enters the come a and lens of the eyeball. The energy is transmitted to the retina of the eye whose rods and cones are activated. The stimuli are transferred by nerve cells to theoptic nerve and then to the brain, man is a binocular animal, and the impressions from his two eyes are translated into sight-a rapid, compound analysis of the shape, form, colour, size, position, andmotion of the things he sees. Photometry is the science of measuring light. The illuminating engineer and designer employ photometric data constantly in this work, In all fields of applications of light and lighting, they predicate their choice of equipment, lamps, wall finishes, colours of light and
backgrounds, and other factors affecting the luminous and environmental pattern to be secured, in great part from data supplied originally by photometric laboratory. Today, extensive tables and chartsof photometric data are used widely, constituting the basis for many details of design. Although the lighting designer may not be called upon to the detailed work of making measurements or plotting data in the form of photometric curves ’ and analyzing them, an understanding of the terms used and their derivation form valuable background knowledge. The perception of colour is a complex visual sensation, intimately related to light. The apparent colour of an object depends primarily upon four factors: Its ability to reflect various colours of light, the nature of the light by which it is seen,the colour of its surroundings, and the characteristics and state of adaptation of the eye. In most discussions of colour, a distinction is made between white and coloured objects. White is the colour name most usually applied to a material that diffusely transmits a high percentage of all the hues of light. Colours that have no hue are termed neutral or achromatic colours. They include white, off—white, all shades of gray, down to black. All coloured objects selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect or transmit others in varying degrees. Inorganic materials, chiefly metals such as copper and brass, reflect light from their surfaces. Hence we have the term “surface” or “metallic” colours, as contrasted with “body” or “pigment” colours. In the former, the light reflected from the surface is often tinted. Most paints, on the other hand, have body or pigment colours. In these, light is reflected from the surface without much colour change, but the body material absorbs some
colours and reflects others; hence, the diffuse reflection from the body of the material is coloured but often appears to be overlaid and diluted with a “white” reflection from the glossy surface of the paint film. In paints and enamels, the pigment particles, which are usually opaque, are suspended in a vehicle such as oil or plastic, The particles of a dye, on the other hand are considerably liner and may ‘be` described as colouring matter in
solution. The dye particles are more often transparent or translucent
13. According to the passage, lighting engineers need not:
A. Plot photometric curves.
B. utilize photometric data
C. understand photometric techniques
D. has mathematical expertise.
14. The colour black.is an example of
A. a surface colour
B. an achromatic colour
C. an organic colour
D. a diffuse colour
15. Paint is an example of a substance containing:
A. inorganic material
B. body colours
C. surface colours
D. metallic colours
16. The perception of- colour is:
A. a photometric phenomenon
B. a complex visual sensation
C. activated by the brain
D. iight reflected by a source
At the Fourth World Water Forum held in Mexico City in March 2006, the l20 nation assembly could not reach consensus on declaring the right to safe and clean drinking water a human right. Millions ofpeople the world over do not have access to-potable water supply But it is good times for the bottled water industry, which is cashing in on the need for clean drinking water and the ability of urban elite to pay an exorbitant price for this very basic human need. The fortunes of this more-than $l00-billion global industry are directly related to the human apathy towards the environment the more- we pollute our water bodies, the more the sales of bottled water. It is estimated that the global consumption of bottled water is nearing 200 billion liters sufficient to satisfy the daily drinking water need of one-fourth of the Indian population or about 4.5 per cent of the global
population. In India, the per capita bottled water consumption is still quite low5less than five liters a year as compared to the global average of 24 liters. However, the total annual bottled water consumption has risen rapidly in. recent times~•it has tripled between 1999 and 2004 from about 1.5 billion liters to five billion liters; These are boom times for the Indian bottled water industry more so because the economics are sound, the bottom line is fat and the Indian government hardly cares for what happens to the nation’s water resources. India is the tenth largest bottled water consumer in the world. In, 2002, the industry had an estimated turnover of Rs.10 billion (Rs 1,000 crores). Today it is one of india’s fastest growing industrial sectors. Between 1999 and 2004 the Indian bottled water market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 25 percent –the highest in the world. With
never thousand-bottled water producers, the Indian bottled water industry is big by even international standards. There are more than 200 brands, nearly 80 per cent of which are local. Most of the small scale producers sell non-branded products and serve small markets. In fact, making bottled water is today a cottage industry in the country. Leave alone the metros, where a bottledwater manufacturer can befound even in a one-room shop, in everymedium and small city and even some prosperous rural areas there are bottled, water manufacturers. Despite the large number of small producers, this industry is dominated by the big players. Parle Bisleri, Coca- , PepsiCo, Parle Agro,MohanMeakins,SKN Breweries and soon Parle was the first major Indian company to enter the bottled water market in the country when it introduced Bisleri in India 25 years ago. The rise of the Indian bottled water industrybegan with the economic liberalization process in 1991. The market was virtually stagnant until 1991, when the demand for bottled water was less than two million cases a ear. However, Since1991-1992
it has not looked back, and the demand in 2004-05 was astaggering 82 million cases. Bottledwater is soldv in a variety of packages pouches ndglasses,330 ml bottles 500 ml bottles, one-liter bottles and even 20 to 50 liter ulk water packs. The formal bottled water business in Indiacan be divided broadly into three segments in terms of cost: premium natural mineral water, natural mineral water and packaged drinking water. Attracted by the huge potential that India’s vast middle class offers, multinational players such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have been trying for the past decade to capture the Indian bottled water market. Today they have captured a significant portion of it.
However, Parle Bisleri continues to hold 40 per cent of the market share. Kinley and Aquafina are fast catching up, with Kinley holding 20-25 per cent of the market and Aquafina approximately 10 per cent. The rest, including the smallerplayers, have 20-25 per cent of the market share, The majority of the bottling plants whether they produce bottled water or soft drinks are dependenton groundwater. They create huge water stress in the areas where they operate because groundwater is also the main source—in most places the only source—of drinking water in India. This has created huge conflict between the communityand the bottling plants. Private companies in India can siphon out, exhaust and export groundwater free because the groundwater law in the country is archaic and not in tune with the realities of modem capitalist societies. The existing law says that the
person who owns the land owns the groundwater beneath. This means that, theoretically, a person can buy one square meter of land and take all the groundwater of the surrounding areas and the law of land cannot object to it. This law is the core of the conflict between the community and the companies and the major reason for making the business of bottled water in the country highly lucrative.
17. According to the passage, which one of the following statements is not true?
A. Private companies are exploiting ground water resources in India due to outdated law.
B. The growth of Indian bottled water industry is a pre economic liberalization process.
C. Manufacturers excluding bigger players have approximately 20•25% of the market share of bottled water.
D. Bottled water production in India is a cottage industry today.
18. Which brand is having the largest pie in the Indian bottled water market?
D. Mohan Meakins
19. What is/are the reason(s) for the global growth of bottled water industry?
A. Pollution of water bodies
B. Basic human need for clean drinking water
C. Paying capacity of the elite
D, All of the above
20. According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are true?
1. In India, the increase in total annual bottled water consumption is followed by increase in per capita bottled water consumption.
2. Indian bottled water market grew at the highest CAGR.
3. The formal bottled water business in India is divided into broadly two segments in terms of cost.
B. 1 and 3 both
C. 2 only
D. 1, 2 and 3
Directions (Qs. 101-104): Fill in the blanks with the mast appropriate alternatives.
21. It is _____ that those who expect _____ from others are seldom merciful themselves.
A. strange; sincerity
B. unpardonable; kindness
C. stupid; sympathy
D. paradoxical; clemency
22. Some people have the ______ for learning foreign languages but they have no _______ to speak any.
A. aptitude; interest
B. stamina; fondness
C. capacity; ability
D. compulsion; inclination
23. ln Buddhism, it is impossible to keep ethics and psychology _________ from one another,because they .__ at so many points.
A. aloof; merge
B. disjoin; converge
C. alien; meet
D. separate; overlap
24. Cholesterol has long been identified as a silent killer because the patient has no .______ of the danger freely ________ his system.
A. information; invading
B. thought; attacking
C. idea; infecting
D. inkling; traversing
Directions (Qs. 25-28): ln each of these questions one sentence has been split into four parts. There is an error in one part. Identify the part having the error.
25. A. A skilful advertiser may be able to create
B. not because his product is superior to
C, practically a monopoly for himself
D. but because he has succeeded in inducing people to believe that it is.
26. A. Whatever may be the origin of speech
B. to feel the need to speak
C. we can be certain that man did not begin
D. until he began to live in communities
27. A. I regret to bring to your kind notice
B. of your school, has been found to be much distressed
C. that my son Sachin Dubey of Vth Standard
D. and out of sorts for the last few days.
28. A. Our teeming masses, nevertheless illiterate they may be, .
B. and they are fully capable
C. have a very high sense of consciousness
D. of exercising their franchise.
Directions (Qs. 29-32): In each of these questions four words are given marked A, B, C and D. Two of these words are most nearly the same or opposite in meaning. Identify those two words.
29. 1. enthralling 2. respecting3. projecting 4. alluring
30. 1. swoop 2. perturb 3. plump 4. boil
31. 1. fallacy 2. adage 3. dictum 4. Endorse
32. 1. Elevate 2. frugal 3. exult 4. lament
Directions (Qs. 33-36): Each of these questions has a set of 3 or 4 sentences to logically convey an idea. The possible filler(s) in the middle is/are given separately as A and B. Mark the answer as:
A. if 1and 2 are to be filled in that order.
B. if only 1 is to be filled.
C. if 2 and 1 are to be filled in that order
D. if only 2 is to be filled.
33. As far as aircraft maintenance procedures are concerned, they are rigorous. (______). Such cases may end-up in disastrous results, though exceptionally.
1. All problems are immediately corrected on almost every occasion.
2. Only due to urgency or want of aircraft for substitution, certain ones are overlooked.
34. Auto-riding is a very fascinating hobby (_____). It is obvious that they consider the hobby more important than anything else.
1. Low or even middle income group people cannot afford it.
2. I know many people who had missed many important cases or opportunities for participation in auto-riding.
35. There is no doubt that we must be fair and honest in all over dealings. (_____). What you really are is less important than what you are perceived by people around you.
1. It means that perception assumes greater importance than reality.
2. But even more important is how you are perceived by others.
36. The admiration for those who fight against corruption in high places has always been very spontaneous amongst the common people in India, (______). They un hesitantly appreciate such acts but are afraid of openly doing so for fear of the higher ups.
1. They hold such people in high esteem who make sacrifices on principles and moral issues.
2. They make verbose speeches of admiration and appreciation of such acts.
Directions (Qs. 117-120): Each af these questions has a sentence scrambled and marked A, B, C, D and E. Find the correct order as one of the four alternatives. •
1. in different regions of that federation.
2. that was Yugoslavia.
3. the fundamental cause has been the very large difference in the quality of life.
4. although the dismemberment of the federation.
5. is seen more as the result of an ethnic conflict.
1. but there is some merit in it
2. as distinct from consumption
3. the bifurcation of plan and non-plan funds
4. in so far as it focuses attention on development expenses
5. in the budget is artificial
1. like the industrialized countries
2. as if they are to be suffered as relics of a backward past
3. we have specially drawn attention to the non-motorized transport modes
4. because they are completely overlooked in transport planning
5. till replaced by faster petroleum fuelled transport
C. 3,4, 5,2,1
D. 3,4, 2, 5,1
1. he was highly sensitive and resentful
2. towards the country or to those
3. when there was even implied discourtesy
4. while he was extremely gentle and tolerant
5. he held in honour